Download A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor by Mukul Sarkar, Albert Theuwissen PDF

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By Mukul Sarkar, Albert Theuwissen

-Latest learn on Polarization imaginative and prescient Detection utilizing a CMOS picture Sensor
-Presents an instance of a Biologically encouraged CMOS photo Sensor
-Written via prime specialists within the field

Biological structures are a resource of thought within the improvement of small self sufficient sensor nodes. the 2 significant varieties of optical imaginative and prescient platforms present in nature are the one aperture human eye and the compound eye of bugs. The latter are one of the so much compact and smallest imaginative and prescient sensors. the attention is a compound of person lenses with their very own photoreceptor arrays. The visible process of bugs lets them fly with a restricted intelligence and mind processing strength. A CMOS photo sensor replicating the conception of imaginative and prescient in bugs is mentioned and designed during this booklet for commercial (machine imaginative and prescient) and scientific applications.

The CMOS steel layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer capable of feel polarization details. This polarization details is proven to be important in purposes like actual time fabric category and self sustaining agent navigation. additional the sensor is provided with in pixel analog and electronic thoughts which enable version of the dynamic variety and in-pixel binarization in genuine time. The binary output of the pixel attempts to duplicate the flickering influence of the insect’s eye to observe smallest attainable movement in accordance with the swap in kingdom. An built in counter counts the adjustments in states for every row to estimate the course of the movement. The chip comprises an array of 128x128 pixels, it occupies a space of five x four mm2 and it's been designed and fabricated in an 180nm CMOS CIS method from UMC.

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Each micro-lens of the array imaged the object independently. The optical separate layers were used to prevent optical interference between the optical channels. The TOMBO sensor captures multiple low resolution images at the same time and the output is a mosaic of low resolution images from individual optical channel. The final image is constructed from the multiple images acquired though each micro-lens using digital processing. The process of obtaining high resolution images from low resolution images involved complex image processing.

The sensitivity increases with the diameter of the lens but the resolution decreases. • For every field of view, diffraction is more important than geometrical aberrations. • The micro-lens array can be fabricated using techniques like, ion exchange method, photosensitive method, thermal reflow method, chemical vapour deposition, hydrophobic method, focused ion beam method, hot embossing, micromachining etc. Thermal overflow method is most popular because of low cost and simple fabrication steps.

16, is a key parameter which determines the quality of the spherical micro-lens produced using thermal reflow method. 16, the contact angle is given by 38 2 Natural and Artificial Compound Eye Ultraviolet light mask Photoresist layer substrate Photoresist cyclinders substrate Photoresist spheres substrate   Fig. 24) where R is the radius of curvature and h is the height of the micro-lens. 25) where f is the focal length of the micro-lens and n is the refractive index. 5 39 Micro-optics Design (a) Z 9 4 Y Y Φ θ 1 9 Φ=50º 8 4 Φ=25º76 3 1 θ 2 5 Φ X Y position on CMOS 8 3 7 6 Φ=25º 2 5 Φ=50º X position on CMOS channel X Mapping of a circle Onto a square Mapping of a sphere Onto a square (b) θ Φ Φ=25º Φ=25º Φ=50º Φ=50º Fig.

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