Download A Dictionary of Earth Sciences by Michael Allaby PDF

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By Michael Allaby

This dictionary of earth sciences has been revised and up to date and comprises over 6000 entries, together with planetary technological know-how, distant sensing, facts, and series stratigraphy, and monstrous updating in paleontology, mineralogy, and geophysics.

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In cephalopods (*Cephalopoda), the aperture may be indented or notched at the ventral margin by a hyponomic sinus, which houses the *hyponome. Some compressed ammonites (*Ammonoidea) possess a pair of lateral shell extensions (lappets) on either side of the aperture. aperture (holostomatous) Aperture apex The first-formed end of a shell, which is usually pointed. The term is most commonly applied to gastropod (*Gastropoda) shells. apex APF See absolute pollen frequency. aphanitic An *igneous rock *texture characterized by mineral grains which are too small to be identified without a petrological microscope.

5; *orthorhombic; normally white to colourless, sometimes with a bluish tinge, but occasionally grey and reddish; white *streak; *vitreous to pearly *lustre; *crystals rare, the mineral being usually *massive, granular, and fibrous; three *cleavages at right angles, perfect {010}, good {100}, {001}; occurs with *gypsum and *halite, deposited directly from sea water at temperatures in excess of 42 °C, can form from the dehydration of gypsum; may occur as a *cap rock above *salt domes, and as a minor *gangue mineral in *hydrothermal veins.

Anode A positive electrode. See anion. anomaly See geobotanical anomaly; geochemical anomaly; gravity anomaly; heat flow anomaly; and magnetic anomaly. anomphalous See imperforate. anorogenic Applied to 1. e. in an interval between orogenic events, and 2. such an interval. anorthite See alkali feldspar. anorthoclase See alkali feldspar. anorthosite *Plutonic rock composed almost entirely of *plagioclase feldspar (90% or more) which may be oligoclase, andesine, labradorite, or bytownite. These rocks occur most frequently in *Precambrian *shield areas as non-stratiform intrusions or in layered complexes.

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