Download A History of Technology. Volume VII, The Twentieth Century, by Trevor I. Williams PDF

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By Trevor I. Williams

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Read Online or Download A History of Technology. Volume VII, The Twentieth Century, c. 1900 to c. 1950. Part II PDF

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Extra info for A History of Technology. Volume VII, The Twentieth Century, c. 1900 to c. 1950. Part II

Sample text

P. per cylinder may now be obtained. The increased efficiency of the marine engine from 1900 to 1950 is best described in terms of the reduction in fuel consumption. On this basis the F ig . 13. K . as a percentage o f the world total. P R O P U L S IO N The triple-expansion engine (\’ol. V, p. 149) went into service in 1880 and was well established by 1890. The introduction of steel boilers, associated with the triple-expansion engine, allowed working pressures to be raised to about 150 Ib/in- and although there was little external change in the appear­ ance of reciprocating engines in the inter-war period the triple-expansion engine reached its ultimate stage of development when the reheating system, which in various ways gave appreciable improvements in performance, was introduced.

TYPES DESI GN' time immemorial wood was the only material used in shipbuilding because it was readily available throughout the world and was easily worked with simple hand tools. Wooden ships were transversely framed and covered by planks which were fixed to the wooden frames by bolts or screws of copper, iron, or steel. Although their subdivision was poor and their stability often inadequate some wooden ships were still being built at the end of the nineteenth century (Fig. 1). Generally speaking, however, their history belongs to earlier volumes of this work.

Warship building programmes involving battleships (Fig. 9), aircraft carriers, cruisers, destroyers, and submarines were limited by the Washington Treaty of 1922. Tankers formed an important part of build­ ing demand, but the ubiquitous tramp cargo ship represented by far the largest proportion of output. Specialized craft, container, and passenger ships as well as colliers, coasters, trawlers, tugs, and other small craft were also in demand. 753 It was necessary in both world wars to produce a large number of merchant ships very quickly to replace those sunk by the enemy and also to provide the increased sea transport required for world-wide military operations.

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