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Extra resources for Acid Rain: Report number 14
1; this is consistent with measurements that have shown severe magnesium deficiency in affected trees in the field. 8. As the pH of the ‘rain’ was reduced, the O3-induced reductions in growth increased. 1 ppm O3 on the growth response of soya bean to acid precipitation showed no significant acid precipitation/gas interactions. 5 Conclusions Investigations of the effects of ambient air pollution on plants to date have revealed that the situation is very complicated. It is apparent that SO2, NO2, O3 and acid precipitation all have the potential to contribute to the injury of plants.
6 Is ozone a regional or long-range problem? Ozone appears to be one of the causes of extensive treedamage in Germany and elsewhere in central Europe. Some of this ozone is of natural origin, being created in the stratosphere and carried down into the boundary layer by large-scale atmospheric motions. However, ozone is also created by photochemical reactions which take place in polluted airmasses; that is, within the very processes that are generating acidifying species. Resulting levels of ozone tend therefore to peak and be maintained in large continental summer anticyclones, characterised by light winds, little long-range transport, strong sunshine and industrial haze.
It visualises a concentration effect on plants, which through repair mechanisms can minimise these effects, and a total deposition effect on soils which, through a lack of similar repair mechanisms, gradually builds up and creates soil changes that affect vegetation adversely. VEGETATION AND SOILS 43 During the accumulation phase, pollutant deposition, due to the nutrient component from pollution, stimulates growth in ecosystems: this is followed by the effect phases where the accumulation of H+ ions decreases soil pH, releases Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ etc.