By Howell G M Edwards; Peter Vandenabeele
Content material: creation; half I. ANALYTICAL equipment: creation; tools of Visualisation; Vibrational spectroscopy; X-Ray tools; Nuclear suggestions; equipment of separation; Mass spectrometry; Electrochemical suggestions; half II. fabrics: Ceramics and enamels; Glass; Stone; Gemstones/minerals; Obsidian; Pigments and dyes; Icons and work; Metals / corrosion; Biomaterials; Resins, bitumens, tar, coal; Ivory and bones; wooden; Textiles; modern fabrics; half III: QUESTIONS: identity; Authentication; know-how of construction; Provenancing; courting; Degradation and conservation; nutritional reconstruction; precis; Index
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122 To view, pre- and post-process the huge amounts of data, Methods of Visualisation 35 dedicated software is needed. Deriving the actual spectral data from the acquired output requires a major amount of signal processing and differs for the two existing spectral approaches based on narrowband and broadband sensors. 37. Besides, mosaicking of the individual images is needed whenever a high resolution is essential or large objects have to be imaged. Often, the processing software also operates the whole imaging system.
Reproduced with permission from ref. 61,118 The key is to use very small spectral bands, as broadband imagery loses spectral selectivity and spectrally unique features—such as very faint traces of ink that only reflect in a small waveband—might get lost due to mixing with neighbouring wavelengths. 40 In the past two decades, many studies have been conducted to determine the amount of (theoretical and real) filters needed for accurate colour imaging. , Parkkinen et al. claim that eight is essential while Hardeberg139 calculated eighteen basic spectral channels.
Methods of Visualisation 25 The same principles hold for the investigation of all kinds of paintings: on canvas, rock, wood or glass. 94,95 Traces of pigments can also be found on ceramics and plaster, in which case photography by NIR can help enormously in the study of tituli picti (painted inscriptions), decoration etc. 96 Although NIR photography thus clearly proves to be a very successful method for many applications (see Gibson97 for many other examples), reflected SWIR radiation often enables the visualization of certain features (such as the underdrawing of paintings) even better than NIR imaging as longer IR wavelengths have an increased penetration depth.